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Citation Style Guide

This guide was created to provide basic instruction on commonly-used citation styles across the faculties of Dalhousie University.

Citing Indigenous Elders

If your research involves speaking with an Elder or Knowledge Keeper who has given you permission to quote them, they must be cited. Lorisia MacLeod at NorQuest College Library, in partnership with staff at the NorQuest Indigenous Student Centre, has developed templates for citing Elders and Knowledge Keepers in APA and MLA formats. While these are not officially recognized by APA and MLA, students, instructors, and researchers are encouraged to follow these templates. Unlike other types of personal communication, communications with Elders and Knowledge Keepers should be cited both in-text and in the References or Works Cited.

Lorisia MacLeod's article, More Than Personal Communication Templates For Citing Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers, discusses the importance of acknowledging Indigenous voices in academic research. 

APA 7th edition

MLA 9th edition

Other resources