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Citation Style Guide

This guide was created to provide basic instruction on commonly-used citation styles across the faculties of Dalhousie University.

Chicago Style

The Chicago Manual of Style was released by the Chicago University Press in 1906. The 200-page first edition was originally intended to serve as a style guide for the proofreaders and composers in the printing room.  Since its humble beginnings, the manual has grown into a book of 1000 pages with over 2000 hyperlinked pages online.  

The Chicago Citation Style is used primarily by the humanities and is recognizable because of its use of footnotes or endnotes and Bibliography page. 

This is the format referred to as the Notes-Bibliography system. 

Using Footnotes and Endnotes:

Chicago style uses footnotes or endnotes to cite sources. Footnotes place the references at the bottom of the page and endnotes place the references at the end of the paper. Unless specified by your teacher or publisher, either option is valid as long as you are consistent.

To create a footnote or endnote:

1. Go to the "References" Tab in Microsoft Word.

2. Click the "Insert Footnote" or "Insert Endnote" button.

Each note will be indicated by a superscript number attached to the reference made in the text. All notes will be created in chronological, numerical order.

Example citation from a fictional author and sources: 

The flies should be tenderized prior to baking, or they will be far too tough.1

Superscripts are created in order of their appearance in the text. There should be no repetition of numbers; each superscript is unique to the individual quotation or reference.

The Note:

The first time a resource is cited, use a note like this:

1. Ribbit Frog, Experts Guide to Artisanal Fly Cuisine. (Halifax, Imaginary Publishing INC, 1998), 33-34.

Subsequent notes for a previously mentioned resource use a shortened format:

2. Frog, Artisanal Fly Cuisine, 36-37.

Papers using the Chicago style of citation must include a comprehensive list of references, called a Bibliography, at the end. The format of the references in the bibliography is slightly different from that used in the notes.  

The Bibliography:

Documents using the Chicago style of citation must contain a "Bibliography" page at the end of the text. The following are some examples of how to cite commonly-used references:


Frog, Ribbit. Expert's Guide to Artisanal Fly Cuisine. Halifax: Imaginary Publishing INC, 1998. 

Book titles are in italics and title case!

Online Scholarly Journal Article

Frog, Ribbit. "I've Got Ninety-nine Problems but a Fly ain't One." Journal of Esoteric Ridiculousness 33 (1999): 12-20. doi: 10.1086/xxxxx

Journal titles are in italics and title case!

Page from a Website

Frog, Ribbit. "How to Prepare Delicious Fly Scallopini." Last modified January 4, 2005.

Journal and web articles are in standard type, title case and quotation marks!

For more information on how to cite different formats (such as multiple author, video, etc) in Chicago style check out the links to Purdue Owl or the Quick Guide below!

Online guides

Video tutorials