Skip to main content

Computer Science Research Guide

"If we knew what it was we were doing, it would not be called research, would it?" --Einstein

Examples

Computer Science Style Guide Suggestions

Collect a basic set of information for each one of your references, and then format this information to match an accepted Bibliographic Style (ACM, APA or IEEE). On this page you will find a list of the information that is needed, along with several examples.

ACM = Association of Computing Machinery
Sample citation [Phillips 2001] -- List References alphabetically, using the author's last name.

APA = American Psychology Association
Sample citation (Raskin, 2002) -- List References alphabetically, using the author's last name.

IEEE = Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Sample citations [1] or [8, 10] -- List References numerically, in the order that you have cited them.

Once you select a style, keep all of your references in the same style.


How to write a Reference for a


Webpage (html document, URL significant)
Basic information needed See an example using: ACM | APA | IEEE

Website (with many pages, URL significant)
Basic information needed
See an example using: ACM | APA | IEEE

Wikipedia
There are no examples because this is not a scholarly resource. It is not an appropriate reference for academic papers.

Article in electronic Newsletter or Magazine (html document, URL significant)
Basic information needed See an example using: ACM | APA | IEEE

ACM Digital Library (pdf document, URL not relevant)
Basic information needed
See an example using: ACM | APA | IEEE

IEEE Electronic Library (pdf document, URL not relevant)
Basic information needed See an example using: ACM | APA | IEEE

Journal Article with DOI (Digital Object Identifier)
Basic information needed See an example using: ACM | APA | IEEE

Journal Article (multiple formats online, URL to a directory)
Basic information needed See an example using: ACM | APA | IEEE

Journal Article (multiple formats online, URL to a file)
Basic information needed See an example using: ACM | APA | IEEE

Journal Article (from a print source, no URL)
Basic information needed See an example using: ACM | APA | IEEE

Conference Paper (from Proceedings)
Basic information needed See an example using: ACM | APA | IEEE

Book (by one or more authors)
Basic information needed See an example using: ACM | APA | IEEE

Authored Chapter in a Book (by one or more editors)
Basic information needed See an example using: ACM | APA | IEEE

International Standard (from a print source, no URL)
Basic information needed See an example using: ACM | APA | IEEE

International Standard (html document, URL significant)
Basic information needed See an example using: ACM | APA | IEEE

Technical Report (from a print source, no URL)
Basic information needed See an example using: ACM | APA | IEEE

Technical Report (html document, URL significant)
Basic information needed See an example using: ACM | APA | IEEE


INFORMATION & EXAMPLES



Information needed for a Webpage (html file, URL significant)
Author: Jakob Nielsen
Date: 1994
Title: Heuristics for User Interface Design
Page: Ten Usability Heuristics
URL: http://www.useit.com/papers/heuristic/heuristic_list.html


Example using ACM

NIELSEN, J. 1994. Ten usability heuristics. Heuristics for user interface design.
    http://www.useit.com/papers/heuristic/heuristic_list.html.


Example using APA

Nielsen, J. (1994). Ten usability heuristics. Heuristics for user interface design.
    Retrieved from http://www.useit.com/papers/heuristic/heuristic_list.html


Example using IEEE

[1]  J. Nielsen, "Ten usability heuristics," 1994, http://www.useit.com/papers/ 
     heuristic/heuristic_list.html.


Information needed for "documents" within a Website (URL significant)
Author: Microsoft Corporation
Date: 2003
Title: Site Management Cycle
Site: Commerce Server Concepts
URL: http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/en-us/comsrv2k/htm/cs_gs_concepts_ntqq.asp


Example using ACM

MICROSOFT CORPORATION. 2003. Site management cycle. Commerce server concepts.
    http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/en-us/comsrv2k/htm/cs_gs_concepts_ntqq.asp.


Example using APA

Microsoft Corporation. (2003). Site management cycle. Commerce server concepts. Retrieved 
    from http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/en-us/comsrv2k/htm/cs_gs_concepts_ntqq.asp


Example using IEEE

[2]  Microsoft Corporation, "Site management cycle," 2003, http://msdn.microsoft.com/
     library/en-us/comsrv2k/htm/cs_gs_concepts_ntqq.asp.


Information needed for an Article in electronic Newsletter or Magazine (html document, URL significant)
Author:  Chris Sherman
Date:  2002 April 2
Title:  Teoma vs. Google, Round Two
Newsletter:  SearchDay
URL:  http://searchenginewatch.com/searchday/02/sd0402-teoma.html


Example using ACM

SHERMAN, C. 2002. Teoma vs. Google, round two. SearchDay. 
    http://searchenginewatch.com/searchday/02/sd0402-teoma.html.


Example using APA

Sherman, C. (2002, April 2). Teoma vs. Google, round two. SearchDay. 
    Retrieved from http://searchenginewatch.com/searchday/02/sd0402-teoma.html


Example using IEEE

[3]  C. Sherman, "Teoma vs. Google, round two," April 2, 2002, 
     http://searchenginewatch.com/searchday/02/sd0402-teoma.html.


Information needed for the ACM Digital Library (pdf document, URL not relevant)
Author:  Jef Raskin
Date:  1997 February
Title:  Looking for a humane interface: will computers ever become easy to use?
Journal:  Communications of the ACM
Specifics:  Volume 40, Issue 2, pages 98-101
  Note: Although accessed electronically, the URL is not significant.


Example using ACM

RASKIN, J. 1997. Looking for a humane interface: Will computers ever become easy to use? 
    Communications of the ACM, 40, 2, 98-101.


Example using APA

Raskin, J. (1997, February). Looking for a humane interface: Will computers ever become 
    easy to use? Communications of the ACM, 40(2), 98-101.


Example using IEEE

[4]  J. Raskin, "Looking for a humane interface: Will computers ever become easy to use?"  
     Communications of the ACM, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 98-101, Feb. 1997.


Information needed for the IEEE Electronic Library (pdf document, URL not relevant)
Author:  M. Phillips
Date:  2001 October
Title:  Reducing the cost of Bluetooth systems
Journal:  Electronics & Communication Engineering Journal
Specifics:  Volume: 13, Issue: 5, pages 204-208
  Note: Although accessed electronically, the URL is not significant.


Example using ACM

PHILLIPS, M. 2001. Reducing the cost of Bluetooth systems. Electronics & Communication 
    Engineering Journal, 13, 5, 204-208.


Example using APA

Phillips, M. (2001, October). Reducing the cost of Bluetooth systems. 
    Electronics & Communication Engineering Journal, 13(5), 204-208.


Example using IEEE

[5]  M. Phillips, "Reducing the cost of Bluetooth systems," Electronics & Communication 
     Engineering Journal, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 204-208, Oct. 2001.


Information needed for a Journal Article with a DOI (Digital Object Identifier)
Author:  Heather L. O'Brien and Elaine G. Toms
Date:  April 2008
Title:  What is user engagement? A conceptual framework for defining user engagement with technology
Journal:  Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology (JASIST)
Specifics:  Volume 59, Issue 6, pages 938-955
DOI: 10.1002/asi.20801
  Note: The DOI is a unique number used to identify a specific article.


Example using ACM

O'BRIEN, H.L. AND TOMS, E.G. 2008. What is user engagement? A conceptual framework 
    for defining user engagement with technology. Journal of the American Society 
    for Information Science and Technology, 59, 6, 938-955.


Example using APA

O'Brien, H.L., & Toms, E.G. (2008). What is user engagement? A conceptual framework 
    for defining user engagement with technology. Journal of the American Society 
    for Information Science and Technology, 59(6), 938-955. doi:10.1002/asi.20801


Example using IEEE

[6]  H.L. O'Brien and E.G. Toms, "What is user engagement? A conceptual framework for 
     defining user engagement with technology," Journal of the American Society 
     for Information Science and Technology, vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 938-955, Apr. 2008.


Information needed for a Journal Article (multiple formats online, URL to a directory)
Author:  E.F. Vasechkina and V.D. Yarin
Date:  2001
Title:  Evolving polynomial neural network by means of genetic algorithm: some application examples
Journal:  Complexity International
Specifics:  Volume 09
URL:  http://www.csu.edu.au/ci/vol09/vasech01/
  Note: The URL goes to a directory where the format is selected.


Example using ACM

VASECHKINA, E.F. AND YARDIN, V.D. 2001. Evolving polynomial neural network by means 
    of genetic algorithm: Some application examples.  Complexity International, 09. 
    http://www.csu.edu.au/ci/vol09/vasech01/.


Example using APA

Vasechkina, E.F., & Yarin, V.D. (2001). Evolving polynomial neural network by means 
    of genetic algorithm: Some application examples. Complexity International, 09. 
    Retrieved from http://www.csu.edu.au/ci/vol09/vasech01/


Example using IEEE

[7]  E.F. Vasechkina and V.D. Yarin, "Evolving polynomial neural network by means of 
     genetic algorithm: Some application examples," Complexity International, vol. 09, 
     2001, http://www.csu.edu.au/ci/vol09/vasech01/.


Information needed for a Journal Article (multiple formats online, URL to a file)
Author:  O. Edelstein, E. Farchi, Y. Nir, G. Ratsaby, S. Ur
  Note: This gives an example for more than three authors, to be cited as Edelstein et al.
Date:  2002
Title:  Multithreaded Java program test generation
Journal:  IBM Systems Journal
Specifics:  Volume 41, No. 1, pages 111-125
URL:  http://www.research.ibm.com/journal/sj/411/edelstein.html
URL:  http://www.research.ibm.com/journal/sj/411/edelstein.pdf
  Note: When there is a URL for both formats, use the pdf instead of the html.


Example using ACM

EDELSTEIN, O., FARCHI, E., NIR, Y., RATSABY, G., AND UR, S. 2002. Multithreaded 
    Java program test generation. IBM Systems Journal, 41, 1, 111-125. 
    http://www.research.ibm.com/journal/sj/411/edelstein.pdf.


Example using APA

Edelstein, O., Farchi, E., Nir, Y., Ratsaby, G., & Ur, S. (2002). Multithreaded 
    Java program test generation. IBM Systems Journal, 41(1), 111-125. Retrieved 
    from http://www.research.ibm.com/journal/sj/411/edelstein.pdf


Example using IEEE

[8]  O. Edelestein, E. Farchi, Y. Nir, G. Ratsaby, and S. Ur, "Multithreaded Java 
     program test generation," IBM Systems Journal, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 111-125, 2002, 
     http://www.research.ibm.com/journal/sj/411/edelstein.pdf.


Information needed for a Journal Article (from a print source, no URL)
Author:  R.R. Yager
Date:  July 1977
Title:  Multiple objective decision-making using fuzzy sets
Journal:  International journal of man-machine studies
Specifics:  Volume 9, Number 4, 375-382

Note: Articles published in the 1970's or earlier are usually available in print format only.

Note: Journal names are often abbreviated. The abbreviation for the International Journal of Man-Machine Studies is Int. J. Man-Machine Studies. Although you will see abbreviations used in published journals, as a student, it is best to use the journal's full name in your list of references.

Note: Sometimes the name of a journal is changed to better reflect the area of interest. In 1994, the International Journal of Man-Machine Studies was renamed to the International Journal of Human-Computer Studies. Always use the name of the journal that matches the date of the article you are going to reference.


Example using ACM

YAGER, R.R. 1977. Multiple objective decision-making using fuzzy sets. International 
    Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 9, 4, 375-382.


Example using APA

Yager, R.R. (1977, July). Multiple objective decision-making using fuzzy sets. 
    International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 9(4), 375-382.


Example using IEEE

[9]  R.R. Yager, "Multiple objective decision-making using fuzzy sets," International 
     Journal of Man-Machine Studies, vol. 9, no. 4, pp.375-382, Jul. 1977.


Information needed for a Conference Paper (from Proceedings)
Author:  Kun-Lung Wu, Charu C. Aggarwal and Philip S. Yu
Date:  2001
Title:  Personalization with Dynamic Profiler
Proceedings:  Proceedings Third International Workshop on Advanced Issues of E-Commerce and Web-Based Information Systems, WECWIS 2001
Place of Conference:  Santa Juan, California
Date of Conference:  21-22 June 2001
City where Proceedings Published:  Los Alamitos, California
Publisher of Proceedings:  IEEE Computer Society
Pages:  12-20


Example using ACM

WU, K.-L., AGGARWAL, C.C. AND YU, P.S. 2001. Personalization with dynamic profiler. 
    In Proceedings of the third international workshop on advanced issues 
    of e-commerce and web-based information systems, WECWIS 2001, Santa Juan, 
    California, June 2001, IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, CA, 12-20.


Example using APA

Wu, K.-L., Aggarwal, C.C., & Yu, P.S. (2001). Personalization with dynamic profiler. 
    In Proceedings of the third international workshop on advanced issues 
    of e-commerce and web-based information systems, WECWIS 2001, Santa Juan, 
    California, June 21-22, 2001. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society. 12-20.


Example using IEEE

[10] K.-L. Wu, C.C. Aggarwal, and P.S. Yu, "Personalization with dynamic profiler," 
     in Proceedings of the third international workshop on advanced issues of 
     e-commerce and web-based information systems, 2001, pp. 12-20.


Information needed for a Book (by one or more authors)
Author:  Trevor Hastie, Robert Tibshirani, and Jerome H. Friedman
Date:  2001
Title:  The elements of statistical learning: data mining, inference, and prediction (Springer Series in Statistics)
Place where published:  New York, NY
Publisher:  Springer-Verlag


Example using ACM

HASTIE, T., TIBSHIRANI, R. AND FRIEDMAN, J.H. 2001. The elements of statistical learning: 
    Data mining, inference, and prediction, Springer Series in Statistics. 
    Springer-Verlag, New York, NY.


Example using APA

Hastie, T., Tibshirani, R., & Friedman, J.H. (2001). The elements of statistical learning: 
    Data mining, inference, and prediction, Springer Series in Statistics. 
    New York: Springer-Verlag.


Example using IEEE

[11] T. Hastie, R. Tibshirani, and J.H. Friedman, The elements of statistical learning: 
     Data mining, inference, and prediction, Springer Series in Statistics. 
     New York: Springer-Verlag, 2001.


Information needed for an Authored Chapter in a Book (by one or more editors)
Author:  M.T. Maybury
Date:  2001
Title of Chapter:  Intelligent user interfaces for all
Title of Book:  User interfaces for all: concepts, methods and tools
Editor:  Constantine Stephanidis
Place Book Published:  Mahwah, New Jersey
Publisher:  Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Pages:  65-80

Note: The abbreviation for an editor is Ed. (and for more than one editors it is Eds.)


Example using ACM

MAYBURY, M.T. 2001. Intelligent user interfaces for all. In User interfaces for all: 
    Concepts, methods and tools, C. STEPHANIDIS, Ed. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 
    Mahwah, NJ, 65-80.


Example using APA

Maybury, M.T. (2001). Intelligent user interfaces for all. In C. Stephanidis (Ed.),  
    User interfaces for all: Concepts, methods and tools (pp. 65-80). Mahwah, NJ: 
    Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.


Example using IEEE

[12] M.T. Maybury, "Intelligent user interfaces for all," in User interfaces for all: 
     Concepts, methods and tools, C. Stephanidis, Ed. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum 
     Associates, 2001, pp. 65-80.


Information needed for an International Standard (from a print source, no URL)
Designation:  ANSI T1.602
Date:  1989
Title:  Telecommunications -- Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) --
Data-Link Layer Signaling Specification for Application at the User-Network Interface


Example using ACM

ANSI T1.602. 1989. Telecommunications -- Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) -- 
    Data-Link Layer Signaling Specification for Application at the 
    User-Network Interface.


Example using APA

ANSI T1.602. (1989). Telecommunications -- Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) -- 
    Data-Link Layer Signaling Specification for Application at the 
    User-Network Interface.


Example using IEEE

[13] ANSI T1.602-1989, Telecommunications-Integrated Services Digital Network 
     (ISDN) - Data-Link Layer Signaling Specification for Application 
     at the User-Network Interface.


Information needed for an International Standard (html document, URL significant)
Designation:  ISO/IEC JTC1/SC34
Date:  1998
Title:  Document Description and Processing Languages
URL:  http://www.ornl.gov/sgml/sc34/document/0029.htm


Example using ACM

ISO/IEC JTC1/SC34. 1998. Document Description and Processing Languages. 
    http://www.ornl.gov/sgml/sc34/document/0029.htm.


Example using APA

ISO/IEC JTC1/SC34. (1998). Document Description and Processing Languages. 
    Retrieved from http://www.ornl.gov/sgml/sc34/document/0029.htm


Example using IEEE

[14] ISO/IEC JTC1/SC34:1998, Document Description and Processing Languages, 
     http://www.ornl.gov/sgml/sc34/document/0029.htm.


Information needed for a Technical Report (from a print source, no URL)
Author:  P.T. Cox and T. Pietrzykowski
Date:  1984
Title:  Advanced programming aids in PROGRAPH
Organization:  Technical University of Nova Scotia
Technical Report Number:  8404
Place where published:  Halifax, NS
Publisher:  School of Computer Science, Technical University of Nova Scotia


Example using ACM

COX, P.T. AND PIETRZYKOWSKI, T. 1984. Advanced programming aids in 
    PROGRAPH. Technical University of Nova Scotia, TR No. 8404. 
    School of Computer Science, Technical University of Nova Scotia, 
    Halifax, NS.


Example using APA

Cox, P.T., & Pietrzykowski, T. (1984). Advanced programming aids in 
    PROGRAPH (Technical University of Nova Scotia, Technical Report 
    No. 8404). Halifax, NS: School of Computer Science, Technical 
    University of Nova Scotia.


Example using IEEE

[15] P.T. Cox and T. Pietrzykowski, Advanced programming aids in PROGRAPH, 
     Technical University of Nova Scotia, Report 8404. Halifax, NS: 
     School of Computer Science, Technical University of Nova Scotia, 1984.


Information needed for a Technical Report (pdf document, URL significant)
Author:  Vlado Keselj and Nick Cercone
Date:  January 2002
Title:  A Graph Unification Machine for N.L. Parsing
Organization:  University of Waterloo
Technical Report Number:  CS-2002-01
URL:  http://www.cs.uwaterloo.ca/cs-archive/CS-2002/01/CS-2002-01.pdf


Example using ACM

KESELJ V. AND CERCONE, N. 2002. A Graph Unification Machine for N.L. 
     Parsing. University of Waterloo, TR No. CS-2002-01. 
     http://www.cs.uwaterloo.ca/cs-archive/CS-2002/01/CS-2002-01.pdf.


Example using APA

Keselj V., & Cercone, N. (2002, January). A Graph Unification Machine 
     for  N.L. Parsing (University of Waterloo, Technical Report 
     No. CS-2002-01). Retrieved from http://www.cs.uwaterloo.ca/
     cs-archive/CS-2002/01/CS-2002-01.pdf


Example using IEEE

[16] V. Keselj and N. Cercone, A Graph Unification Machine for N.L. 
      Parsing,  University of Waterloo, Report CS-2002-01, January, 2002, 
      http://www.cs.uwaterloo.ca/cs-archive/CS-2002/01/CS-2002-01.pdf.