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Citation Style Guide

This guide was created to provide basic instruction on commonly-used citation styles across the faculties of Dalhousie University.

The Dalhousie Writing Centre offers support in all subjects—from academic assignments to dissertations—for undergraduate and graduate students studying on campus or via distance education. They will meet with you individually to discuss your work and they also offer events and seminars.  While they are not a proofreading or editing service, they will work with you to answer any writing-related questions you may have.  

Of special interest are the following areas of writing:

  • Research papers and course assignments
  • Sourcing and citing research material (documenting sources)
  • Grammar, punctuation, and mechanics of writing
  • In-class presentations
  • Business writing
  • Applications/letters of intent for admission and scholarships
  • Collaborative/joint writing practices
  • Interdisciplinary writing
  • Technical writing: Science and Engineering
  • English as Another Language (ESL/EAL) support (English Language Learning)



Another amazing resource for help with citations are the Dalhousie Libraries' Reference and Research Services staff. Visit any of the Dalhousie Libraries to find a librarian for help with research and citation questions. Check the chart below for the locations and operating hours of the various reference and help desks across campus. 


Online citation management tools

Citation Management tools are a great resource for helping you properly cite your references in a research paper or project.  


All Dalhousie students can sign up for an account with Refworks for no charge.  Just hit the "Sign up for a New Account" button and create an account.  Make sure to enter the Dalhousie group code: RWDalhousieU to get the account for free.


A free alternative to Refworks.  Zotero is a Microsoft Firefox plugin which provides tools to help you gather, manage, share, and cite your sources.  

Citation Machine

A great tool to create your bibliographic and in text citations.

While all of these tools are amazing options to assist in the creation of citations and bibliographic references, they are not infallible.  Whenever using any of the above options to create a reference, make sure to double check what the tool gives you as they can make mistakes!