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Computer Science Research Guide

"If we knew what it was we were doing, it would not be called research, would it?" --Einstein

Examples

In-text citations are used when quoting someone else's words or summarizing someone else's ideas.

There are two different ways you can use words that were written by another person:

Quotations – an exact copy of the original words, used in a way that preserves their intended context.
You must identify the author, the resource, and the page where the words can be found.

Paraphrasing – takes a passage from something you have read but the content is re-written using your own words.
You must give credit to the original author and the work in which it was written (specific page numbers are not needed).


In-text citations link a point being made in your own assignment to the evidence that explains where you found that information.

On this page you will find examples of another author's words or ideas being used for an assignment.
The words or ideas you select may be short (just several words) or long (a whole paragraph).

Choose one of these recommended styles: ACM, APA or IEEE.
Once you select a style, keep all of your citations in the same style.


How to write an in-text Citation for a


Short Quotation (less than 40 words)
Original text See an example using: ACM | APA | IEEE

Paraphrasing something SHORT
Original text
See an example using: ACM | APA | IEEE

Long Quotation (40 or more words)
Original text See an example using: ACM | APA | IEEE

Paraphrasing something LONG
Original text
See an example using: ACM | APA | IEEE

Reference (source used in all citation examples)
Basic information needed See an example using: ACM | APA | IEEE


ORIGINAL TEXT & EXAMPLES



Using Text (short) – for a Quotation

Original text:
"Informatics, in general, studies the intersection of people, information, and technology systems."

Author(s): Groth and MacKie-Mason
Date: 2010
Page: 27


Example using ACM

When asked, you can simply say that, "Informatics ... studies the intersection of people, 
information, and technology systems" (Groth and MacKie-Mason, 2010, 27).

Example using APA
When asked, you can simply say that, "Informatics ... studies the intersection of people, 
information, and technology systems" (Groth & MacKie-Mason, 2010, p. 27).

Example using IEEE
When asked, you can simply say that, "Informatics ... studies the intersection of people, 
information, and technology systems" [1:27].



Using Text (short) – for Paraphrasing

Original text:
"Informatics, in general, studies the intersection of people, information, and technology systems."

Author(s): Groth and MacKie-Mason
Date: 2010
Page: 27


Example using ACM

Choosing to do an Informatics degree is a good decision for any student who is interested in 
how people intersect with information and technology systems (Groth and MacKie-Mason, 2010).

Example using APA
Choosing to do an Informatics degree is a good decision for any student who is interested in 
how people intersect with information and technology systems (Groth & MacKie-Mason, 2010).

Example using IEEE
Choosing to do an Informatics degree is a good decision for any student who is 
interested in how people intersect with information and technology systems [1].



Using Text (long) – for a Quotation

Original text:
"The term 'informatics' has different definitions depending on where it is used. In Europe, for instance,
computer science is referred to as informatics. In the U.S., however, informatics is linked with applied computing,
or computing in the context of another domain. These are just labels, of course. In practice, we are educating
for a broad continuum of computing disciplines, applications, and contexts encountered in society today."

Author(s): Groth and MacKie-Mason
Date: 2010
Page: 26


Example using ACM

When you decide to enroll in an Informatics program, you can expect to spend some of your time 

explaining what this means. According to Groth & MacKie-Mason (2010):

    The term "informatics" has different definitions depending on where it is
    used. In Europe, for instance, computer science is referred to as informatics.
    In the U.S., however, informatics is linked with applied computing, or computing
    in the context of another domain. These are just labels, of course. In practice,
    we are educating for a broad continuum of computing disciplines, applications,
    and contexts encountered in society today. (26)


Example using APA
When you decide to enroll in an Informatics program, you can expect to spend some of your time 

explaining what this means. According to Groth & MacKie-Mason (2010):

    The term "informatics" has different definitions depending on where it is
    used. In Europe, for instance, computer science is referred to as informatics.
    In the U.S., however, informatics is linked with applied computing, or computing
    in the context of another domain. These are just labels, of course. In practice,
    we are educating for a broad continuum of computing disciplines, applications,
    and contexts encountered in society today. (p. 26)


Example using IEEE
When you decide to enroll in an Informatics program, you can expect to spend some of your time 

explaining what this means. According to Groth & MacKie-Mason:

    The term "informatics" has different definitions depending on where it is
    used. In Europe, for instance, computer science is referred to as informatics.
    In the U.S., however, informatics is linked with applied computing, or computing
    in the context of another domain. These are just labels, of course. In practice,
    we are educating for a broad continuum of computing disciplines, applications,
    and contexts encountered in society today. [1:26]



Using Text (long) – for Paraphrasing

Original text:
"The term 'informatics' has different definitions depending on where it is used. In Europe, for instance,
computer science is referred to as informatics. In the U.S., however, informatics is linked with applied computing,
or computing in the context of another domain. These are just labels, of course. In practice, we are educating
for a broad continuum of computing disciplines, applications, and contexts encountered in society today."

Author(s): Groth and MacKie-Mason
Date: 2010
Page: 26


Example using ACM

In Canada, we offer degrees in both Informatics and Computer Science. This is also 
done in the United States but in Europe, all students in computer science programs
will earn an Informatics degree (Groth and MacKie-Mason, 2010).


Example using APA
In Canada, we offer degrees in both Informatics and Computer Science. This is also 
done in the United States but in Europe, all students in computer science programs
will earn an Informatics degree (Groth & MacKie-Mason, 2010).


Example using IEEE
In Canada, we offer degrees in both Informatics and Computer Science. This is also 
done in the United States but in Europe, all students in computer science programs
will earn an Informatics degree [1].



Reference – Information needed for the Article you read and want to cite from
Author:  Dennis P. Groth and Jeffrey K. MacKie-Mason
Date:  2010 February
Title:  Why an informatics degree?
Journal:  Communications of the ACM
Specifics:  Volume 53, Issue 2, pages 26-28
DOI:  10.1145/1646353.1646364


REFERENCE using ACM

GROTH, D.P. AND MACKIE-MASON, J.K. 2010.  Why an informatics degree? 
    Communications of the ACM, 53, 2, 26-28.

REFERENCE using APA
Groth, D.P., & MacKie-Mason, J.K. (2010, February). Why an informatics degree?
    Communications of the ACM, 53(2), 26-28. doi:10.1145/1646353.1646364

REFERENCE using IEEE
[1]  D.P. Groth and J.K. MacKie-Mason, "Why an informatics degree?" 
     Communications of the ACM, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 26-28, Feb. 2010.